Alas! Călinescu writes that, by then, Macedonski was "obsessed" with the Divine Comedy. This page was last edited on 8 December 2014, at 07:02. [234] In respect to the latter characteristic, Vianu notes "no one in Romanian literature has laughed the same way as Macedonski",[235] whereas critic Ștefan Cazimir argues: "[Macedonski was] lacking the sense of relativity in principles, and implicitly a sense of humor." Din tejghea făcând tribună, legiune de coțcari, [208] His last anthumous work was the pamphlet Zaherlina (named after the Romanian version of "Zacherlin"; also known as Zacherlina or Zacherlina în continuare, "Zacherlin Contd. Places a muddy sole on the people and the boyars, Of South Slav (Serb or Bulgarian)[1] or Aromanian[2][3] origin, they claimed to have descended from Serb insurgents in Ottoman-ruled Macedonia. Statul e o ficțiune, iar dreptatea—strâmbătate, Download Free PDF. La un șvarț cu Eminescu și un divin narcotic cu Macedonski la Fialkowski Autor: Catalin Pena 25 decembrie 2020, 13:16 Polonezul Fialkowski a închiriat, în a doua parte a veacului al XIX-lea, parterul casei Török de pe str. And when the flag of liberty is carried by publicans. [311] Vianu indicates the connection, but adds: "Macedonski descended, through memory, in the world of the village, with the tremor of regret for the peace and plenty of the old settlements, so well polished that each person, landowner as well as peasant, lived within a framework that nature itself seemed to have granted. A final volume of never before published poems, Poema rondelurilor, saw print in 1927. Călinescu, p.558; Vianu, Vol.II, p.386-387. George Călinescu believes that this is to be understood as one item in a large antithesis, the other being Decadent Paris, which one rondel describes as "hell". Alexandru's grandfather Dimitrie and Dimitrie's brother Pavel participated in the 1821 uprising against the Phanariote administration, and in alliance with the Filiki Eteria; Dimitrie made the object of controversy when, during the final stage of the revolt, he sided with the Eteria in its confrontation with W… This situation repeated itself in later years, when Macedonski and his Forța Morală magazine began campaigning against the Junimist dramatist Ion Luca Caragiale, whom they falsely accused of plagiarism. Reflecting back on this period in 1892, Macedonski described Caragiale as a "noisy young man" of "sophistic reasoning", whose target audience was to be found in "beer gardens". [24], In July 1883, Macedonski undertook one of his most controversial anti-Junimist actions. Alexandru D. Macedonski was a politician, military officer and the father of Alexandru Macedonski. [182] By then, Macedonski was rewarding his followers' poems with false gemstones. [90], In the meantime, Macedonski published his own play, which had Cuza for its main character and was eponymously titled Cuza-Vodă,[75] and completed translations for Literatorul—from Maurice Rollinat, whom he helped impose as a main cultural reference in Romanian Symbolism, and from the Greek poet Akhillefs Paraskhos. [202] During summer, Macedonski also joined the group of public figures who saluted the senior Conservative Germanophile Petre P. Carp (deeming Carp "the veteran of character, honesty and Romanianism"), and, in September, joined Ioan Slavici and Gala Galaction as a contributor to the occupation magazine Rumänien in Wort und Bild, where he prophesied an anti-French "political renaissance" of Romania. Cernat gives the date as 1909, while Sandqvist mentions 1895 and 1899. [35] During this short interval in office, he traveled to the Snake Island in the Black Sea—his appreciation for the place later motivated him to write the fantasy novel Thalassa, Le Calvaire de feu and the poem Lewki. "[144] He also attempted to build a machine for extinguishing chimney fires. [117] However, late in the same year, he returned to the liberal mainstream, being assigned a weekly column in Românul newspaper. Ionescu-Caion, who accused Caragiale of having plagiarized a Hungarian author by the name of Kemény in his tragedy play Năpasta. [299] A celebration of spring partly evoking folkloric themes, it was made famous by the recurring refrain, Veniți: privighetoarea cântă și liliacul e-nflorit ("Come along: the nightingale is singing and the lilac is in blossom"). [3], Although Alexandru Macedonski frequently changed his style and views on literary matters, a number of constants have been traced throughout his work. [350], Macedonski's cosmopolitan circle was the center of a literary alternative to the prevailing conservatism and Eminescu-like traditionalism of the day, the latter tendency being grouped around Sămănătorul magazine for part of Macedonski's lifetime. [74] Nevertheless, both plays failed to impose themselves on public perception, and were withdrawn from the program by 1888. "[213] The series also returned to Levant settings and Islamic imagery, particularly in Acșam dovalar (named after the Turkish version of Witr). [278] However, the later piece Viața de apoi ("The Afterlife") still displays resentments he harbored toward Eminescu. Ever since that moment, Macedonski has generally been believed to be Duna, and as a result, was faced with much criticism from both readers and commentators. [105][146], The few issues of Literatorul that were printed in 1899-1900 saw the circle being joined by the young Symbolist poet Ștefan Petică. [3] Macedonski's childhood home in Goiești passed into state property under communism, and was in turn a school, a community home and a Macedonski Museum, before falling into neglect after the Romanian Revolution of 1989. M-am îndoit de-a ta putere, Sunt ca orice om borrowed its theme from the widely circulated collection of Persian literature known as Sindipa. [3][191] In 1915, he issued the journal Cuvântul Meu ("My Word"). 10[267] (according to Zamfir, a prime sample of Macedonski's "ornamental" genre). [51], The new cabinet eventually appointed him Prefect of Bolgrad region, in the Budjak (at the time part of Romania). [70] While welcoming the debut of its contributor, Parnassian-Neoclassicist novelist and poet Duiliu Zamfirescu,[66] Macedonski repeatedly attacked its main exponent, the conservative poet Eminescu, claiming not to understand his poetry. [239], During his time at Oltul (1873–1875), Macedonski published a series of poems, most of which were not featured in definitive editions of his work. Of South Slav (Serb or Bulgarian) or Aromanian origin, they claimed to have descended from Serb insurgents in Ottoman-ruled Macedonia. These were the travel account Pompeia și Sorento ("Pompeia and Sorento", 1874) and a prison-themed story described by Vianu as "a tearjerker", titled Câinele din Văcărești ("The Dog in Văcărești", 1875). [24] Critic Cornel Moraru found that, in the background, Thalassa, a "great Symbolist novel", confronts Ancient Greek and Christian mythology, but "abuses" the religious vocabulary. [57], In the 1990s, Ștefan Agopian took the Nights cycle as inspiration for an erotic short story,[390] while Pavel Șușară adapted his rondels to a modernized setting. II, p.441-442; Suciu, p.106-107, Răileanu & Carassou, p.152; Sandqvist, p.199; Vianu, Vol. B This article has been rated as B-Class on the project's quality scale. "[87] The piece he had earlier written, presumably against Eminescu, scandalized the public by mocking the rival's mental ruin: Un X... pretins poet—acum [72], In November 1880, Macedonski's plays Iadeș! [41] At age 22, he worked on his first play, a comedy titled Gemenii ("The Twins"). This, the critic notes, was owed to his "social temperament", whose "fundamental experience is that of the social. Să nu avem ură când se luminează, [324], The four-act tragicomedy Le Fou? At that stage, he was especially inspired by Lord Byron, whom Vianu calls "the sovereign poet of [Macedonski's] youth. Vianu, Vol.II, p.357. [301] Anghelescu reads it as a "meditation on disillusionment that culminates in a vitality-laden exhortation of action. [44], In March 1875, Macedonski was arrested on charges of defamation[45] or sedition. His image acquired mythical proportions for his followers. Demetrescu later recalled being gripped by "tremors of emotion" upon first catching sight of Macedonski. [30], The following year, he left for Italy, where he visited Pisa, Florence, Venice, and possibly other cities. Stoenescu. M. Vianu believes that Macedonski had not authored any of the anti-Eminescu articles before that date. Of Macedonski's numerous residences, the one in Dorobanți was demolished when the Academy of Economic Studies (ASE) was expanded. [35], Still determined to pursue a career in the press, Macedonski founded a string of unsuccessful magazines with patriotic content and titles such as Vestea ("The Announcement"), Dunărea ("The Danube"), Fulgerul ("The Lightning") and, after 1880, Tarara (an onomatopoeia equivalent to "Toodoodoo"). [228], In Vianu's perspective, Macedonski's stance is dominated by a mixture of nostalgia, sensuality, lugubrious-grotesque imagery, and "the lack of bashfulness for antisocial sentiments" which compliments his sarcasm. [24] Vianu argues that the play may document the Romanian writer's late rejection of France, through the protagonist's statement: "the French are a gentle people, but their soul is different from mine."[341]. [110] In January 1885, after having returned from the voyage, he announced his retirement from public life, claiming that German influence and its exponents at Junimea had "conquered" Romanian culture,[111] and repeating his claim that Eminescu lacked value. [338] Tudor Vianu remarks: "In Dante's great self-pride, Macedonski found his own. Noaptea de decemvrie is the synthesis of his main themes and influences, rated by commentators as his "masterpiece". [134] Between that time and 1900, he focused on researching esoteric, occult and pseudoscientific subjects. [118] Two years later, he attempted to relaunch Literatorul under the leadership of liberal figure Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu, but the latter eventually settled for founding his own Revista Nouă. M. Stoenescu convinced himself that Caragiale was being framed, and refused to allow Revista Literară to be used for endorsing Caion, which caused Macedonski to shun him. Origin. [42] These writings were followed in 1876 by a concise biography of Cârjaliul, an early 19th-century hajduk. [245] The imprint of Romanticism and such other sources was evident in Prima verba, which groups pieces that Macedonski authored in his early youth, the earliest of them being written when he was just twelve. "[106], According to Mihai Zamfir, at the end of his transition from the "mimetic and egocentric" verse to Symbolist poetry, Macedonski emerged a "remarkable, often extraordinary" author. Within the framework of Romanian literature, Macedonski is seen by critics as second only to national poet Mihai Eminescu; as leader of a cosmopolitan and aestheticist trend formed around his Literatorul journal, he was diametrically opposed to the inward-looking traditionalism of Eminescu and his school. [46] In contrast to this series, some of the pieces written during Macedonski's time in the Budjak and Northern Dobruja display a detachment from contemporary themes. ", "La poésie roumaine au XIXe siècle. While critics agree that it is to be read as an allegory of Macedonski's biography, the ironic text does not make it clear whether the emir actually reaches his target, nor if the central metaphor of Mecca as a mirage means that the goal is not worth sacrificing for. [290], Also during that stage, Macedonski was exploring the numerous links between Symbolism, mysticism and esotericism. ; Romanian Alexandru Lungu won the men's open category as judo competition wrapped up. [24][240] Macedonski is thus perceived as the author second only to Eminescu, and as his ideal counterpart—a relation Vianu describes as "the internal dualism [confronting] two familiar gods". ; He was to have begun his defense against Alexandru Lungu of Romania. [61] Meanwhile, according to Călinescu, his attacks on the liberals and the "daft insults he aimed at [Romania's] throne" had effectively ruined his own chance of political advancement. Tudor Vianu writes: "the poet makes such waste of gemstones that we feel like saying some of them must be false",[323] while Călinescu, who notes that some fragments reveal "an incomparable artist" and "a professional metaphorist", notes that "in the end, such virtuosities become a bore. [46] The publication followed the line of Nicolae Moret Blaremberg, made notorious for his radical and republican agenda. [202] Confined to his home by illness and old age, Macedonski was still writing poems, some of which later known as his Ultima verba ("Last Words"). Thalassa este o idila din descendenta indepartata a lui Dafnis si Cloe a lui Longos, amestecata insa cu elemente de inspiratie si cu procedee moderne. [103] According to Călinescu, the poet continued to cultivate luxury and passionately invested in the decorative arts, although his source of income, other than the supposed assistance "of [European] ruling houses", remains a mystery. [3][51] A commemorative plaque was later put up near the spot. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. [120] It was also at that stage that Alexandru Macedonski associated with Cincinat Pavelescu, the noted epigrammarian, who joined him in editing Literatorul, and with whom he co-authored the 1893 verse tragedy depicting the Biblical hero Saul, and named after him. [115] Two years later, Macedonski himself published French-language translations of his earlier poetry under the title Bronzes, a volume prefaced by his disciple, the critic and promoter Alexandru Bogdan-Pitești. [205] According to Vianu, he had intended to create a joke political party, the "intellectual group", whose other member was an unnamed coffeehouse acquaintance of his. [167] During the 1910s, busts of him were completed by two sculptors, Alexandru Severin and Friedrich Storck, one of Storck's variants being hosted by the Ioan Cantacuzino collection. [12] While the writer perpetuated his father's claim, it is possible that he also took pride in investigating his Balkan roots: according to literary historian Tudor Vianu, who, as a youth, was a member of his circle, this tendency is attested by two of Macedonski's poems from the 1880s, where the South Slavs appear as icons of freedom. [36] Having also written an anti-Carol piece, published in Telegraful Român during 1873, Macedonski reportedly feared political reprisals, and decided to make another visit to Styria and Italy while his case was being assessed. See also Boia, p.246-247, Vianu, Vol.II, p.393. "), which was only published after his death. [8] Through her father, she may have descended from Russian immigrants who had been absorbed into Oltenia's nobility. "[261] Another poem, Noaptea de aprilie ("April Night"), was probably his testimony of unrequited love for Aristizza Romanescu.[262]. 14, 1854, in Bucharest; died there Nov. 24, 1920. Am râs de sfintele mistere His house is porcelain-like. Free PDF. Ce-am convenit cu toții a numi soțietate https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Alexandru+Macedonschi. According to Tudor Vianu, Macedonski was mostly motivated by his disappointment in Junimea, and in particular by Eminescu's response to his public persona. [130] Macedonski commended his new protégé for reaching "the summit of poetry and art" at "an age when I was still prattling verses". ("Wishbone! [269] In contrast, Dereanu is a bohemian university student, possessed by dreams of military and political glory, and who meditates about his future in front of Heliade Rădulescu's statue or in Bucharest cafés. [15] Before the age of six, he was a sickly and nervous child, who is reported to have had regular tantrums. [393] In neighboring Moldova, Macedonski influenced the Neosymbolism of Aureliu Busuioc. The poet was upset by not being included on the National Liberal list for the 1875 suffrage. [222] However, Călinescu criticizes Macedonski for using a language which, "although grammatically correct [...], seems to have been learned only recently", as well as for not following other Romanian writers in creating a lasting poetic style. E tânăr, e farmec, e trăsnet, e zeu, [93] Wealthy and supposedly related to Romanian aristocrats,[94] she would bear him five children in all: the painter Alexis was the eldest, followed by Nikita; the three youngest were two sons (Panel and Constantin Macedonski) and a daughter, Anna (also known as Nina). 3/32. [128], Macedonski also returned with a new volume of poetry, Excelsior (consecutive editions in 1895 and 1896),[129] and founded Liga Ortodoxă ("The Orthodox League"), a magazine noted for hosting the debut of Tudor Arghezi, later one of the most celebrated figures in Romanian literature. [284] In his review of Bronzes for Mercure de France, Pierre Quillard remarked the "irreproachable" technique, but criticized the poet for being too indebted to both Baudelaire and Leconte de Lisle;[139] other Symbolist figures whom Macedonski is known to have borrowed from are José María de Heredia[285] and Iwan Gilkin. Alexandru Macedonski translation in German - English Reverso dictionary, see also 'Alexandrit',Alexandrien',Alexandriner',Albaner', examples, definition, conjugation [325] The plot reflects Macedonski's confrontation with his critics, and his acceptance of the fact that people saw in him an eccentric. [241] Various critics have compared Eminescu's poetic discourse with that of the Symbolist leader, concluding that the two poets often display very similar attitudes. Both his son Alexis and grandson Soare were known painters. [379] In his debut poems, Benjamin Fondane-Barbu Fundoianu occasionally followed Macedonski,[380] but, by 1920, stated that the Symbolist doyen merely imitated French models to the point of "parasitism". [24][343] One of these texts, the 1886 essay Poeți și critici ("Poets and Critics"), spoke of Macedonski as having "vitiated" poetry, a notion he also applied to Constantin D. Aricescu and Aron Densușianu. See also Suciu, p.106, Călinescu, p.524; Vianu, Vol.II, p.398-402, Vianu, Vol.II, p.354. II, p.373-376, Cioculescu, p.140; Vianu, Vol. Alexandru Macedonski 2012 - 3 - Nici cntec de paseri, nici pomi, nici izvoarei dulce e viaa n rozul Bagdad. ), Anghelescu, p.29-31; Călinescu, p.527; Vianu, Vol.II, p.385, Anghelescu, p.13; Călinescu, p.523, 529; Vianu, Vol.II, p.474-479, Călinescu, p.519, 520-521, 523, 527, 529; Vianu, Vol.III, p.434-435, Călinescu, p.407, 412; Ornea, p.117; Vianu, Vol.II, p.243, 356, Vianu, Vol.II, p.391. A. Macedonski, Macedonschi or Macedonsky; March 14, 1854 – November 24, 1920) was a Wallachian-born Romanian poet, novelist, dramatist and literary critic, known especially for having promoted French Symbolism in his native country, and for leading the Romanian Symbolist movement during its early … How to say Alexandru in English? "[318] According to Vianu, the book builds on Macedonski's earlier themes, replacing Naturalist observation with a metaphysical speculation about idealism. [150], Like in the case of Eminescu's conflict with Macedonski, the polemic enlisted a negative response from the public. 1880 - The magazine "Literatorul" is issued in Bucharest under the leadership of poet Alexandru Macedonski. Macedonski, Alexandru Born Mar. [320] Like other synesthetic aspects of his novel, this is believed to have been inspired by the techniques of Baudelaire[321] and Arthur Rimbaud. During World War I, the poet aggravated his critics by supporting the Central Powers against Romania's alliance with the Entente side. [282] His version of Symbolism, critic Paul Cernat notes, clashed with that advocated by many of his contemporaries in that it rejected merit to the Decadent movement, and represented the "decorative" aestheticist trend of Paranassian spirit within the Romanian Symbolist current. [3][181] The apparent secrecy and the initiation rites performed on new members were purportedly inspired by Rosicrucianism and the Freemasonry. [52] Others were epic and patriotic in tone, with subjects such as Romanian victories in the Russo-Turkish War or the Imperial Roman sites along the Danube. Orientări ulterioare spre teozofie și filozofie socială ("Toward Occultism. [35], In January 1880, he launched his most influential and long-lived publication, Literatorul, which was also the focal point of his eclectic cultural circle, and, in later years, of the local Symbolist school. His biography was also marked by an enduring interest in esotericism, numerous attempts to become recognized as an inventor, and an enthusiasm for cycling. [3] Constantin Piliuță, a painter active in the second half of the 20th century, made Macedonski the subject of a portrait in series dedicated to Romanian cultural figures (also depicted were Nicolae Iorga, Ștefan Luchian and Vianu). Monologul lui Baiazid", "Ștefan Agopian: 'Cînd citeam o carte bună, uitam să-mi fac lecțiile!' George Călinescu's emits a verdict on the relation between his lifetime notoriety and the public's actual awareness of his work: "Macedonski [was] a poet well-known for being an unknown poet. Seeking to achieve a perfect union with his lover, he eventually kills her and drowns himself in the Black Sea. It ended only under the rule of Carol I, Cuza's Hohenzollern successor, when Parliament voted against increasing the sum to the level demanded by its recipient. [260] The writer himself claimed that the piece evidenced "the uttermost breath of inspiration I have ever felt in my life. Debuting as a Neoromantic in the Wallachian tradition, Macedonski went through the Realist-Naturalist stage deemed "social poetry", while progressively adapting his style to Symbolism and Parnassianism, and repeatedly but unsuccessfully attempting to impose himself in the Francophone world. Vianu, who visited the poet together with Pillat, compares this atmosphere with those created by other "mystics and magi of poetry" (citing as examples Joséphin Péladan, Louis-Nicolas Ménard, Stéphane Mallarmé and Stefan George). Missir, Convorbiri Literare gave Poezii a negative review, deemed "malevolent" by literary historian Mircea Anghelescu. [149] Most in Macedonski's own series of anti-Caragiale articles were unsigned, or signed with pseudonyms such as Luciliu ("Gaius Lucilius"). [289] In his Ospățul lui Pentaur ("The Feast of Pentaur"), the poet reflected on civilization itself, as reflected in inanimate opulence. [21] Having preserved a negative impression of the 1866 plebiscite, during which Cuza's dethronement had been confirmed,[22] Macedonski remained a committed opponent of the new ruler. In old age, he became the author of rondels, noted for their detached and serene vision of life, in contrast with his earlier combativeness. [355] The pictorial and joyous elements in Macedonski's poems were also serving to inspire Stamatiad, Eugeniu Ștefănescu-Est and Horia Furtună. Macedonski was educated abroad and in Bucharest. Răileanu & Carassou, p.152. [48] Reportedly, the Bucharest populace organized a spontaneous celebration of the verdict. T. Stamatiad, as well as by post-Junimist critic Mihail Dragomirescu, who offered Macedonski a good reception in his Convorbiri Critice magazine. [394] A magazine by the name of Literatorul, which claims to represent the legacy of Macedonski's publication, was founded in Romania in 1991, being edited by writers Sorescu, Fănuș Neagu and Mircea Micu. These stories, most of which were eventually collected in Cartea de aur, include memoirs of his childhood in the Amaradia region, nostalgic portrayals of the Oltenian boyar environment, idealized depictions of Cuza's reign, as well as a retrospective view on the end of Rom slavery (found in his piece Verigă țiganul, "Verigă the Gypsy"). [357] A more discreet legacy of Macedonski's ideas was also preserved inside the conservative and traditionalist camps. [63] At a larger level, Vianu indicates, the play is also Macedonski's critique of capitalism, and, using Parisian argot, makes allusive references to famous people of the day. [108] This adaptation to Symbolism also drew on his marked Francophilia, which in turn complemented his tendencies toward cosmopolitanism. [55] Their history is connected with that of the Russo-Turkish War, at the end of which Romanian participation on the Russian side resulted in her independence. Is far more suited than bandits are for this terrible dwelling! As journalist and militant, his allegiance fluctuated between the liberal current and conservatism, becoming involved in polemics and controversies of the day. According to Vianu, the court also ruled out that Macedonski's arrest had been rendered void by the, Anghelescu, p.9; Călinescu, p.519; Vianu, Vol.II, p.347, Anghelescu, p.9; Vianu, Vol.II, p.349-350, Călinescu, p.515-516, 523; Vianu, Vol.II, p.343, 351, Anghelescu, p.10; Călinescu, p.529; Vianu, Vol.II, p.351, Anghelescu, p.10; Călinescu, p.519; Sandqvist, p.197. Mult mai demnă ca tâlharii e de-acest cumplit locaș! [295], Noaptea de august ("August Night"), outlines a monistic belief probably inspired by Rosicrucianism, stressing the unity between soul and matter and depicting Macedonski's own journey into a transcendental space. , Let us not be listed among [ his ] most fortunate '' view held! Canary '' [ 356 ] in 1883, he was attending the Carol I High in. Time and 1900, he remained indebted to Macedonski in matters of vision and language 150,... [ 255 ] Likewise, his allegiance fluctuated between the two were eventually reconciled, and withdrawn! 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