Both bridges had previously been attacked unsuccessfully with conventional bombs and even missiles. Although the hill wa… Shelling by PAVN artillery dropped off by one-half between 9 May and 1 June. Joined by two aircraft from the Coral Sea, three of the four torpedo boats were sunk. U.S. intelligence analysts believed that PAVN had enough stockpiled supplies to sustain their campaigns throughout the autumn. One of the A-7s illuminated the area with a flare while the other dropped a Rockeye, which along with gunfire from Newport News and Rowan, finished off the targets. [24] Between 1 May and 30 June B-52s, fighter-bombers, and gunships had flown 18,000 sorties against formidable AAA defenses with the loss of 29 aircraft. "[52] It succeeded, where Rolling Thunder had failed, he claimed, for three reasons: President Nixon was decisive in his actions and gave the military greater latitude in targeting; American airpower was forcefully and appropriately used; and the immense difference in the technology utilized made Linebacker the first bombing campaign in a "new era" of aerial warfare. (Originally published on the NHHC Sextant blog on December 19, 2019.) [49] On 28 August, the Air Force gained its first ace when Captain Richard S. Ritchie downed his fifth enemy aircraft. [21] The Navy cut short its in-port period for the carriers USS Kitty Hawk and USS Constellation and ordered USS Midway, USS America and USS Saratoga to augment the fleet so that four or more carrier air wings could conduct missions simultaneously. [37] The next day, Nixon shook the hand of Soviet Foreign Trade Minister Nikolai Patolichev at the White House. Hours before Nixon's speech announcing the mining, Kissinger had delivered a letter to Soviet ambassador Anatoly Dobrynin which outlined the U.S. plan, but which also made clear Nixon's willingness to proceed with the summit. Their targets included the railroad switching yards at Yên Viên and the Paul Doumer Bridge, on the northern outskirts of Hanoi. U.S. President Richard Nixon resigns due the Watergate Scandal. On 5 May, Nixon ordered the Joint Chiefs to prepare to execute the aerial mining portion of the Duck Hook plan within three days under the operational title Pocket Money. Later, intelligence analysts credited Newport News with destroying one boat, Rowan with damaging a second, and the A-7 with “possibly sinking” a third. [14] In order to prevent a total ARVN collapse and to protect American prestige during the upcoming summit meeting with Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev, Nixon decided to risk a massive escalation of force. His National Security Advisor, Dr. Henry Kissinger, convinced Nixon to reconsider, since he did not want to jeopardize the formalization of the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) with the Soviets, that was due to be signed in May. Their air wings totaled approximately 140 aircraft. The defending South Vietnamese division retreats. [citation needed], Operation Linebacker, the designation for the new interdiction campaign, would have four objectives: to isolate North Vietnam from its outside sources of supply by destroying railroad bridges and rolling stock in and around Hanoi and northeastward toward the Chinese frontier; the targeting of primary storage areas and marshalling yards; to destroy storage and transshipment points; and finally, to eliminate (or at least damage) the North's air defense system.          Political / Social. [32], Shortly after his inauguration, Nixon had ordered the preparation of a contingency plan, one that would hopefully bring the Vietnam War to an end. Between March and May, B-52 sortie rates had climbed from 700 to 2,200 per month and the big bombers had dropped 57,000 tons of bombs in Quảng Trị Province alone. [12], U.S. Air Force tactical strikes against North Vietnam north of the 20th parallel were authorized on 5 April under the nickname Freedom Train. St. Martin's Press. These strikes were conducted in support of ARVN forces, and included those of the air wings of the carriers USS Coral Sea and USS Hancock. Three more days followed before another strike, this time by another 18 bombers in a pre-dawn attack against an oil tank farm outside Haiphong. In 1888, the president of the French Third Republic Sadi Carnot promulgated a decree to establish Hai Phong city. On the assigned day, the two men met for a session that Kissinger later described as "brutal and insulting. [6] They quickly seized the town of Loc Ninh and then surrounded the town of An Lộc, cutting the road to the capital. [34] The plan had been shelved at the time as too extreme, but it was not forgotten. James Lemuel Holloway III (born February 23, 1922) is a retired United States Navy admiral and naval aviator who was highly decorated for his actions during World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War.After the Vietnam War, he was posted to The Pentagon, where he established the Navy's Nuclear Powered Carrier Program.He served as Chief of Naval Operations from 1974–1978. 104 were lost in combat and 30 were destroyed in operational accidents. This marked the introduction of laser-guided bombs against strategic targets in North Vietnam. In addition to interdicting the road and rail system of North Vietnam, Linebacker also systematically attacked its air defense system. Joined by two aircraft from the USS Coral Sea, three of the four torpedo boats were sunk. [45] The Air Force, opposed by MiG-21s, MiG-17s, and J-6s (the Chinese version of the MiG-19), experienced a virtual 1:1 shoot-down ratio through the first two months of the campaign, as seven of its eventual 24 Linebacker air-to-air losses occurred without any corresponding North Vietnamese loss in a twelve-day period between 24 June and 5 July. It was fought on August 27, 1972 between the U.S. Navy and the North Vietnamese forces protecting the Haiphong Port. [16] Another 114 fighter-bombers were located at bases in Thailand. Losses by service were:[1], For the December 1972 military operation, see. "[29], On 27 April, ARVN defenses in Quảng Trị Province began to collapse. His National Security Advisor, Dr. Henry Kissinger, convinced the president to reconsider, since he did not want to jeopardize the formalization of the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) with the Soviets, that was due to be formalized in May. [46] In contrast, the Air Force experienced a 1:1 kill ratio through the first two months of the campaign, as seven of its eventual 24 Linebacker air-to-air losses occurred without any corresponding VPAF loss in a twelve-day period between 24 June and 5 July. A pair of naval attack aircrafts and four U.S. Navy warships launched a raid against the Vietnamese. [27], Brezhnev then arranged for another secret meeting between Kissinger and Hanoi's lead negotiator Le Duc Tho, to be held on 2 May in Paris. Also contributing to the parity was a lack of air combat training against dissimilar aircraft, a deficient early warning system, and ECM pod formations that mandated strict adherence to formation flying. Head, p. 66. The shell penetrated the superstructure and exploded, killing one man and 108–109. The clash with the torpedo boats occurred 27 miles southeast of Haiphong at a point about 9 or 10 miles off the coast, the Navy said. The Battle of Hamburger Hill was fought between the U.S. and ARVN against PAVN forces from May 10 to 20, 1969. As a result of this meeting and the fall of Quảng Trị City, Nixon was prepared to up the ante, stating that "the bastards have never been bombed like they're going to be bombed this time. Seventh Air Force and U.S. Navy Task Force 77 air interdiction campaign conducted against North Vietnam from 9 May to 23 October 1972, during the Vietnam War. Dramatic changes in the course of the war characterized 1968. For those unfamiliar with the exhibit, it centers around a 1972 nighttime raid by four surface warships of … One such operation was Operation Lion's Den, or "The Battle of Haiphong Harbor". Unwilling to jeopardize increasingly normalized relations with the West and wary of Washington's growing relationship with Beijing, Brezhnev agreed to apply pressure to Hanoi to end the offensive and negotiate seriously. Although the conventional attack by the North Vietnamese, which included the extensive use of armor and heavy artillery, riveted the attention of the allies on the northern provinces, it was only the first of three such operations that were launched that spring. Several more bridges were brought down along the rail line leading to the south toward the DMZ. [4] The PAVN force struck the defensive positions of the Third ARVN Division and threw it into disarray. [36], Both before and during Pocket Money, Nixon and Kissinger had worried about the Soviet and Chinese reaction to the escalation. [35] The mines were activated five days after their delivery in order to allow any vessels then in port to escape without damage. New Orleans was laid down on 1 March 1966 at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [53] The diplomatic impasse was broken and Nixon ordered a halt to all bombing above the 20th parallel on 23 October and on 26 October Kissinger announced that "peace is at hand." [61] By September, imports into North Vietnam were estimated at 35 to 50 percent below what they had been in May, bolstering claims that the campaign had been successful in its interdiction effort. Losses are enumerated by date, aircraft type and serial number, and crew members. [13] On 4 April, Nixon authorized the bombing of North Vietnam (which had been limited to reprisal raids just above the DMZ) up to the 18th parallel. At the beginning of 1972, the U.S. Air Force had only three squadrons of F-4 Phantoms and a single squadron of A-37 Dragonflys, a total of 76 aircraft, stationed in South Vietnam. The VPAF, with approximately 200 interceptors, strongly contested these attacks throughout the campaign. The Battle of Xa Cam My was a battle of the Vietnam War fought over two days from April 11–12, 1966. This paper summarizes the events leading to the U.S. mining of Haiphong Harbor in 1972, near the end of the War in Vietnam. [7] They quickly seized the town of Lộc Ninh and then surrounded the town of An Lộc, cutting the road to the capital. [40] Anti-aircraft artillery and over 100 surface-to-air missile firings also brought down two U.S. Navy aircraft. [citation needed]. [25], The U.S. also now began what North Vietnamese historians have described as "using devious political and diplomatic schemes...to cut back the amount of aid being supplied to us by socialist nations. On 12 April, the PAVN struck again, this time moving in from eastern Laos and seizing a series of border outposts around Đắk Tô in Kon Tum Province in the Central Highlands. On 12 April, the PAVN struck again, this time moving in from eastern Laos and seizing a series of border outposts around Dak To in Kon Tum Province in the Central Highlands. On 5 May, the president ordered the Joint Chiefs to prepare to execute the aerial mining portion of the Duck Hook plan within three days under the operational title Pocket Money. https://web.archive.org/web/20140203010754/http://old.vko.ru/pictures/2006_26/42_01.jpg, "Memoirs v Tapes: President Nixon and the December Bombings", "United States Air Force in Southeast Asia: Aces and Aerial Victories – 1965–1973", http://www.strategic-air-command.com/wings/0043bw.htm, http://www.strategic-air-command.com/wings/0307sw.htm, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Operation_Linebacker&oldid=1002695469#Operation_Lion.27s_Den, Aerial operations and battles of the Vietnam War, Battles and operations of the Vietnam War in 1972, Military campaigns involving the United States, United States Marine Corps in the Vietnam War, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Deployed from MCAS Iwakuni; 6 April 1972 – 1 September 1973, Deployed from MCAS Iwakuni; 21 June 1972 – August 1973, Deployed from Naha Air Force Base, Okinawa; 17 May 1972 – 30 January 1973, Deployed from MCAS Iwakuni; 17 May 1972 – 30 January 1973, Deployed from 4th TFW, Seymour-Johnson AFB, North Carolina; 12 April 1972 – 30 September 1972; 9 March 1973 – 7 September 1973, Deployed from 4th TFW, Seymour-Johnson AFB, North Carolina; 6 July 1972 – 22 December 1972, Deployed from Holloman AFB, New Mexico; 12 May 1972 – 2 October 1972, Deployed from Holloman AFB, New Mexico; 13 May 1972 – 5 October 1972, Deployed from Holloman AFB, New Mexico; 10 May 1972 – 30 September 1972, Deployed from Nellis AFB, Nevada; 26 September 1972, Transferred to Takhli RTAFB, Thailand; 27 June 1972, Transferred to the 347th TFW, Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho; 30 June 1972, 72d Strategic Wing (Provisional), Anderson AFB, Guam, This page was last edited on 25 January 2021, at 17:37. This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. 19, 23–25. Are you certain this article is inappropriate? [58] During the same time period, the RVNAF lost ten aircraft. 104 were lost in combat and 30 were destroyed in operational accidents. These strikes were conducted in support of ARVN forces, and included those of the air wings of the carriers Coral Sea and Hancock. [39] A total of 414 sorties were flown on the first day of the operation, 120 by the Air Force and 294 by the Navy, and they encountered the heaviest single day of air-to-air combat during the Vietnam War, with 11 North Vietnamese MiGs (four MiG-21s and seven MiG-17s) and two U.S. Air Force F-4s shot down. [4] This three-division force caught the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) and their American allies unprepared. At the beginning of 1972, the U.S. Air Force had only three squadrons of F-4s and a single squadron of A-37s, a total of 76 aircraft, stationed in South Vietnam. By 4 April, ARVN officers had patched together a defensive line that held the PAVN at bay, but it was only a temporary respite. This raid, which took place off the Do Son Peninsula and Cat Ba Island area at the entrance to Haiphong Harbor was carried out by Task Unit 77.1.2., which included four ships, USS Newport News (CA 148), an 8-inch gun cruiser; USS Providence (CLG 6), a 6-inch gun missile cruiser; USS Robison (DDG 12), a guided-missile destroyer; and USS Rowan (DD 782) a Gearing class destroyer. She was the third Navy ship to be so named, and is the first named for the Battle of New Orleans, which was the last major battle of The War of 1812. Originally planned as a U.S. search and destroy mission intended to lure out the "crack" Viet Cong D800 Battalion (1 Bn./4th Rgt./5 Div. As a result of this meeting and the fall of Quảng Trị City, Nixon was prepared to up the ante, stating that "the bastards have never been bombed like they're going to be bombed this time. The reason for the precise timing of the strike became apparent when Nixon simultaneously delivered a televised speech explaining the escalation to the American people: "The only way to stop the killing is to take the weapons of war out of the hands of the international outlaws of North Vietnam.". From 1974 to 1978, he served as the senior uniformed officer in the U.S. Navy and as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff under three Presidents; Nixon, Ford and Carter. They were protected from attack by North Vietnamese MiG fighters by the guided-missile cruisers Chicago and Long Beach, several destroyers including the guided missile destroyer Berkeley, and by flights of F-4 Phantoms. While seemingly routine, the seizure of the ship was the beginning of a chain of unfortunate events. [6] Although the conventional attack by the PAVN, which included the extensive use of armor and heavy artillery, riveted the attention of the allies on the northern provinces, it was only the first of three such operations that were launched that spring. [51], The stalled offensive in the South and the devastation in North Vietnam had helped to convince Hanoi to return to the bargaining table by early August. President Richard M. Nixon's first response was to consider a three-day attack by B-52 Stratofortress bombers on Hanoi and the port city of Haiphong. [49], Although Linebacker was largely carried out by air, naval forces were also deployed to provide counter battery fire against enemy targets along the Ho Chi Minh Trail and other important logistical areas and in support of ground troops. Reproduction Date: Operation Linebacker was the title of a U.S. Due to conflicting orders from their high command, ARVN units joined an exodus of refugees heading southward, abandoning Quảng Trị city. Twelve days later, Captain Charles B. DeBellevue (who had been Ritchie's backseater during four of his five victories) downed two more MiGs, bringing his total to six. The B-52s were then withdrawn from operations in the north, and when they returned in June, their missions would be limited to the southern panhandle. On 27 August 1972. Linebacker was the first continuous bombing effort conducted against North Vietnam since the end of Operation Rolling Thunder in November 1968. On the following day, while engaged in a sharp exchange of gunfire with hostile shore batteries, one enemy artillery shell found its mark. [20] Strategic Air Command (SAC) dispatched 124 B-52s from the U.S. to Guam bringing the total B-52 strength available for operations to 209. Between March and May, B-52 sortie rates had climbed from 700 to 2,200 per month and they had dropped 57,000 tons of bombs in Quảng Trị Province alone. 4 of 6 found this interesting Interesting? The … [13], The following day 18 B-52s struck Thanh Hóa's Bai Thuong Air Base. [19] Between 4 April and 23 May, during Operation Bullet Shot,[20] Strategic Air Command (SAC) dispatched 124 B-52s from the U.S. to Guam bringing the total B-52 strength available for operations to 209. August [edit | edit source] August 9. [22] By 12 April, President Nixon had informed Kissinger that he had decided on a more comprehensive bombing campaign which would include strikes against both Hanoi and Haiphong. PAVN had evolved into a conventional military force, and such a force depended upon a complex logistical system, which made it vulnerable to aerial attack. Although both Moscow and Beijing publicly denounced the American operation, they were not willing to jeopardize their thawing relationship with the U.S. and Hanoi's requests for support and aid from its socialist allies met with only cool responses. [42], The intensity of the bombing campaign was reflected by the sharp increase in the number of strike and support sorties flown in Southeast Asia as a whole: from 4,237 for all services, including the VNAF, during the month preceding the invasion, to 27,745 flown in support of ARVN forces from the beginning of April to the end of June (20,506 of them flown by the Air Force). [33], At precisely 09:00 (local time) on 9 May, six US Navy A-7 Corsair IIs and three A-6 Intruders from the USS Coral Sea flew into Haiphong harbor and dropped thirty-six 1,000-pound Mark-52 and Mark-55 naval mines into its waters. On the opening day of the operation, Navy Lieutenant Duke Cunningham and his radar intercept officer, Lieutenant (j.g.) The continuing bad weather, however, limited the ability of the U.S. aircraft to assist in stemming the North Vietnamese onslaught. [35] Nixon and Kissinger's diplomacy had triumphed and the U.S. was free to act as it pleased. [citation needed], The U.S. began a rapid build-up of airpower. On 27 August 1972, Vice Admiral James L. Holloway III took with him his ship, the heavy cruiser USS Newport News, the guided missile cruiser USS Providence, and the destroyers USS Robison and USS Rowan conducted a brief night raid against the North Vietnamese forces protecting the port of Haiphong. The stalled offensive in the south and the devastation in North Vietnam had helped to convince Hanoi to return to the bargaining table by early August. It was one of the few ship-to-ship naval battles of the war.[50]. They were followed by more than 100 tactical aircraft attacking targets around Hanoi and Haiphong during daylight. [59] By September, imports into North Vietnam were estimated at 35 to 50 percent below what they had been in May, bolstering claims that the campaign had been successful in its interdiction effort. The PAVN offensive had become a massive conventional military operation that was being conducted on three fronts simultaneously, involving the equivalent of 15 divisions and 600 tanks. American and South Vietnamese Air Force (VNAF) aircraft had been supporting the defense (weather permitting) since the inception of the offensive. [23], By mid-month, nearly all of North Vietnam had been cleared for bombing raids for the first time in over three years. [52] The U.S. on its part agreed to a cease fire in place which conceded that PAVN soldiers could remain in South Vietnam after a peace agreement. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. 1974: Tragedy strikes at the DMZ Navy strength: 545,903 people (0.26% of U.S. population) While inspecting a secret tunnel in the demilitarized zone (DMZ) between North and South Korea, which were and still are technically at war, an explosion caused the death of Comdr. For her participation in the event, BERKELEY received the Navy Expeditionary Medal. [22] By 12 April, President Nixon had informed Kissinger that he had decided on a more comprehensive bombing campaign which would include strikes against both Hanoi and Haiphong. "[44] In total, 41,653 Linebacker missions dropped 155,548 tons of bombs. Two weeks after the initial attack, North Vietnamese forces again battle toward Quang Tri City. 7th Fleet assets in local waters were thereby increased from 84 to 138 ships. Division 341 was reformed 1972 and sent south in Jan 1975. Between 10 May and 23 October 1972, the United States lost a total of 134 aircraft either over the north or as a direct result of Linebacker missions. South Vietnamese forces then fell back, and a race began between both antagonists to the bridges at Dong Ha and Cam Lo. [58] North Vietnam claimed that it had shot down 651 aircraft and sunk or set on fire 80 U.S. warships during the operation.[2]. The battle involved the deployment of North Vietnam's 4th Army Corps for the first time, against determined units of the South Vietnamese Army in Phuoc Long, under the command of Lieutenant General Du Quoc Dong.. On December 12, 1974, the North … [33] Operation Duck Hook was to include an invasion of the North itself and included a proposal to mine its major harbors. [13] In order to prevent a total ARVN collapse and to protect American prestige during the upcoming summit meeting with Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev, Nixon decided to risk a massive escalation of force. China alone shipped an average of 22,000 tons of supplies a month over two rail lines and eight major roads that linked it with North Vietnam. Ellsberg told the Niemans he learned of a 1969 plan to mine Haiphong from an article in the July 1974 issue of the Washington Monthly, written … Gone were Hanoi's demands for the ouster of South Vietnamese President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu and his replacement by a coalition government in which the Viet Cong would participate. [47] Air Force pilots were hampered by use of the outdated "fluid four" tactical formations (a four-plane, two element formation in which only the leader did the shooting and in which the outside wingmen were vulnerable) dictated by service doctrine. The reason for the precise timing of the strike became apparent when President Nixon simultaneously delivered a televised speech explaining the escalation to the American people: "the only way to stop the killing is to take the weapons of war out of the hands of the international outlaws of North Vietnam. The Battle of Phuoc Long was a decisive major battle of the Vietnam War which began on December 12, 1974, and concluded on January 6, 1975. Also contributing to the parity was a lack of air combat training against dissimilar aircraft, a deficient early warning system, and ECM pod formations that mandated strict adherence to formation flying. Also see Morocco, pp. By June 1974, the time of the last summit, Mr. Nixon's prestige had fallen so far that the trip itself was regarded by many as an effort to stave off impeachment. De la Houssaye. [12], Both Nixon and Kissinger considered a plan offered by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to be both unimaginative and lacking in aggressiveness. Karnow, p. 638. Air Force historian Earl Tilford has written that Linebacker was "a watershed in aerial warfare...it was the first modern aerial campaign in which precision guided munitions changed the way in which air power was used. Seventh Air Force and U.S. Navy Task Force 77 air interdiction campaign conducted against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) from 9 May to 23 October 1972, during the Vietnam War. Losses by service were:[64], World War II, Chief of Naval Operations, Charleston, South Carolina, United States Navy, Korean War, For the December 1972 military operation, see, For more details on on the PAVN offensive, see, For more details on on the negotiations, see. [33], On 10 May Operation Linebacker began with large-scale bombing operations against North Vietnam by tactical fighter aircraft of the Seventh Air Force and Task Force 77. Twelve days later, Captain Charles B. DeBellevue (who had been Ritchie's backseater during four of his five victories) downed two more MiGs, bringing his total to six. The enemy's bloody country-wide Tet Offensive of February and March and the follow-up attacks during the spring influenced American decision-making in several important ways. The Chinese, who had previously hoped that a long war in Southeast Asia would bleed both the Americans and their Vietnamese neighbors, now feared that a decline in American power would deprive them of a counterweight to the Soviet Union. The PAVN offensive had become a massive conventional military operation that was being conducted on three fronts simultaneously, involving the equivalent of 15 divisions and 600 tanks. William P. Driscoll became the first U.S. air aces of the Vietnam War when they shot down their fifth MiG. [14], Due to the continuous withdrawal of American forces and the ongoing policy of Vietnamization, at the time of the invasion fewer than 10,000 U.S. troops remained in South Vietnam, and most of them were scheduled to leave within the next six months. Linebacker was the first continuous bombing effort conducted against North Vietnam since the bombing halt instituted by President Lyndon B. Johnson in November 1968. [46], Air Force pilots were hampered by use of the outdated "fluid four" tactical formations (a four-plane, two element formation in which only the leader did the shooting and in which the outside wingmen were vulnerable) dictated by service doctrine. Air Force and Navy commanders and pilots were relieved that Nixon (unlike President Johnson) left the operational planning to local commanders and loosened the targeting restrictions that had hampered Operation Rolling Thunder. [37] The next day, Nixon shook the hand of Soviet Foreign Trade Minister Nikolai Patolichev at the White House. They were protected from attack by North Vietnamese MiG fighters by the guided-missile cruisers Chicago and Long Beach , several destroyers including the guided missile destroyer Berkeley , and by flights of F-4 … The December 1972 military operation, Navy Lieutenant Randall H. Cunningham and his radar officer! Artillery shells, but it was not due to conflicting orders from high. Later described as `` brutal and insulting ( Originally published on the assigned day, the President of the Air! No | Share this ( Originally published on the cities battle of haiphong 1974 Hanoi and,! Province began to collapse networks and North Vietnamese onslaught 's Bai Thuong Airfield with Brezhnev in Moscow during Pocket,! Continuous rain and low cloud cover made Air support difficult for a that. 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Additional terms may apply the plan had been shelved at the White House and confused,.